Decoding the Customer Journey: A Guide to Effective Marketing Attribution Models – Pt. 1



In this first installment of our marketing attribution mini-series, we delve into understanding the basics of marketing attribution and it's ability to provide insights into the customer journey. Marketing attribution serves as the compass, guiding marketers through the complex landscape of touchpoints. This method allows businesses to dissect and assign value to various interactions, aiding in the optimization of campaigns and strategic resource allocation. This blog post will focus on unpacking the components of marketing attribution, exploring diverse attribution models, and determining the most suitable model for specific occasions. Stay tuned for additional insights into implementing a successful and sustainable attribution model in the blog posts to come.

By Carly Bauer, Marketing Consultant at Heinz Marketing

When building an effective marketing strategy, it’s important to know where marketing efforts are driving results, and how credit should be assigned to each touchpoint in the customer journey. In more complex customer journeys like we see in B2B markets compared to B2C, identifying these insights is a bit more challenging and unclear. This is where marketing attribution comes into play to help answer this question.

Marketing attribution is a method used by marketers to analyze and understand the various touchpoints in a customer’s journey that contribute to a desired outcome, such as a sale, conversion, or another specific action. The goal of marketing attribution is to identify and assign value to the different marketing channels and interactions that lead to a conversion. By doing so, businesses can allocate their marketing resources more effectively, optimize campaigns, and make informed decisions about where to invest their efforts and budget.

In this first blog post of a mini-series on marketing attribution. We’re going to focus on,

  • What makes up marketing attribution
  • The different types of attribution models
  • The right model fit for the right occasion

With that, let’s get started.

Components of an Attribution Model

The components of an attribution model can vary, but generally, they include the following elements:

Touchpoints – are specific interactions or points of contact between a customer and a business. They can include clicks on ads, email opens, social media engagement, website visits, and more. Touchpoints are the events or actions that the attribution model analyzes to determine their contribution to conversions.

Conversion events – represent the desired actions that a customer takes, such as making a purchase, filling out a form, or signing up for a newsletter. Attribution models focus on attributing credit to touchpoints that lead to or influence these conversion events.

Attribution rules or logic – determine the weight or influence each touchpoint receives in contributing to a conversion. This defines how credit is assigned based on the selected attribution model (e.g., first-touch, last-touch, linear, algorithmic)

Attribution models – can be categorized into various types (e.g., first-touch, last-touch, linear, time decay, algorithmic). Each type has a different approach to assigning credit and influences the interpretation of the customer journey.

Data sources – are the repositories of information that contain data about customer interactions, touchpoints, and conversion events. They can include CRM data, web analytics, marketing automation platforms, and more.

Conversion paths – represent the sequences of touchpoints that a customer goes through before completing a conversion event. Analyzing conversion paths helps in understanding the customer journey and informs the attribution model about the series of interactions leading to a conversion.

Weights or credits – represent the value assigned to each touchpoint based on the attribution model’s rules. Different models distribute credit differently, such as giving equal weight to all touchpoints or assigning more weight to certain interactions.

Customization parameters – allow businesses to tailor the attribution model to their specific needs. This could involve adjusting the attribution window, incorporating specific metrics, or accounting for offline touchpoints. 

Reporting and visualization tools – present the results of the attribution model analysis in a comprehensible manner. This could include dashboards, graphs, and charts.

Metrics – used to evaluate the performance and accuracy of the attribution model. This can include metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, and others. 

These elements collectively form the components of an attribution model, and their proper configuration and alignment are crucial for deriving valuable insights into the effectiveness of marketing channels and touchpoints in driving conversions.

The Different Types of Attribution Models

Choosing the right attribution model depends on various factors such as the complexity of your sales funnel, the length of your customer’s journey, and the goals of your marketing strategy. Some businesses may even use a combination of models to gain a more comprehensive understanding of their attribution landscape. Additionally, the availability and accuracy of data play a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of each model.

Here are some common types of attribution models, their pros and cons, and when to use them:

First-Touch Attribution 

Credits the first touchpoint that a customer interacts with as the source of the conversion. This model is ideal for companies focusing on brand awareness and initial customer interactions.


Simplicity and Ease of Implementation – Offers a quick and simple way to analyze the impact of initial touchpoints on customer awareness.

Clear Focus on Initial Interaction – Helps businesses understand the source of initial customer interest in scenarios where the first interaction significantly influences customer decisions.

Streamlined Analysis – Simplifies data analysis by attributing the entire conversion credit to the first touchpoint.


Neglects Subsequent Touchpoints – May not provide a holistic view of the various interactions leading to conversion.

Limited Understanding of the Complete Customer Journey – Potentially overlooking crucial touchpoints, it may not accurately represent the customer’s decision-making process.

Oversimplified Attribution – Does not account for the multifaceted nature of modern sales funnels, potentially missing valuable insights.

Vulnerability to Short-Term Biases – It attributes success solely to the first touchpoint without considering long-term engagement and may not be suitable for businesses with complex and lengthy sales cycles.

Ineffective for Multi-Channel Campaigns – Doesn’t provide insights into how various channels contribute throughout the customer journey.

Last-Touch Attribution 

Attributes the conversion to the last touchpoint a customer interacted with before completing the desired action. This model is suitable for businesses where the final touchpoint heavily influences the conversion decision.


Simplicity and Ease of Implementation – Requires minimal complexity in terms of data analysis and model development, making it accessible for businesses with limited resources.

Clear Focus on Conversion Point – Highlights the touchpoint immediately preceding a conversion, offering a clear connection between the marketing effort and the desired outcome.

Quick Decision-Making – Enables rapid decision-making by attributing the entire conversion value to the last touchpoint. Well-suited for businesses with short sales cycles where the final touchpoint is highly influential.


Oversimplification of the Customer Journey – Ignores the influence of earlier touchpoints in the customer journey that contribute to customer awareness and consideration, leading to an oversimplified view of the marketing impact. 

Limited Insights into Multi-Touch Interactions – Lacks insights into the entire sequence of touchpoints that contribute to the conversion, potentially missing valuable data on customer behavior. Inadequate for businesses with multi-stage sales funnels where multiple touchpoints play a crucial role.

Challenge in Evaluating Long Sales Cycles – Ineffective for businesses with longer sales cycles, as it does not capture the cumulative impact of multiple touchpoints over an extended period.

Linear Attribution 

Gives equal credit to each touchpoint in the customer journey. This model would be ideal for businesses with relatively short and straightforward sales cycles.


Equal Representation – A linear attribution model gives equal credit to all touchpoints in the customer journey, providing a straightforward and balanced view. Fairly represents the contribution of each touchpoint, acknowledging the collective impact of the entire customer journey.

Holistic View – Offers a more comprehensive understanding of the customer journey compared to single-touch models. Acknowledges the significance of various touchpoints, providing insights into the complete path to conversion.

Simplicity and Transparency – Simple to understand and implement, requiring less complexity than some other attribution models. Offers transparency, making it easier for stakeholders to grasp and interpret the attribution process.

Suitable for Shorter Sales Cycles – Effective for businesses with relatively short and straightforward sales cycles. Provides a clear representation of the touchpoints leading to conversions in scenarios where customer decisions are made quickly.


Overlooking Specific Touchpoint Impact – May oversimplify the impact of specific touchpoints, assuming they all contribute equally. Fails to differentiate the varying influence that different touchpoints might have on the overall customer journey.

Potential Inaccuracy in Attribution – The equal weight given to all touchpoints may not accurately reflect the actual influence each has on the customer’s decision-making process.

Limited Adaptability – May not capture shifts in customer behavior or changes in the market landscape, making it less suitable for businesses with dynamic or evolving customer journeys. 

Challenge with Longer Sales Cycles – Early touchpoints may be undervalued, and their contributions may be overshadowed by more recent interactions. May not effectively represent the nuances of complex, multi-stage purchase processes.

Less Insight into Attribution Weighting – Provides less granular insight into the specific weighting of each touchpoint compared to other models. Stakeholders may find it challenging to discern the individual impact of various touchpoints.

Time Decay Attribution 

Assigns more value to touchpoints closer to the conversion and less to those earlier in the journey. This model is effective for businesses with longer sales cycles where recent touchpoints are more crucial.


Consideration of Recency – Gives more weight to recent touchpoints, acknowledging the influence of interactions closer to the conversion. Reflects changing customer behaviors over time, making it suitable for evolving markets.

Balanced Attribution Over Time – Provides a balanced view by considering the cumulative impact of touchpoints over the customer journey. Suitable for businesses with a longer sales cycle where early touchpoints may still contribute to conversions.

Adaptability to Sales Funnel Dynamics – Adapts to variations in the length and complexity of sales funnels. Allows for adjustments in the decay rate to align with the average time it takes for customers to convert.

Flexibility in Modeling – Allows businesses to customize decay rates based on specific touchpoints or channels. Provides flexibility to experiment with different time decay configurations to optimize results.


Potential Undervaluing of Early Touchpoints – May undervalue the contribution of early touchpoints, especially in industries where brand awareness plays a crucial role. Early-stage interactions might receive less credit than they deserve in the attribution model.

Assumption of Consistent Decay Patterns – Assumes a consistent decay pattern over time, which may not always align with actual customer behavior. The model might not accurately capture fluctuations in customer engagement.

Limited Representation of Complex Journeys – May oversimplify complex customer journeys, particularly if the sales cycle involves intricate, non-linear paths. May not be suitable for industries where customers engage with various touch points simultaneously.

Data Sensitivity – Highly sensitive to the chosen decay rate, and small adjustments can significantly impact the model’s outcomes. Requires accurate data on the timing of touchpoints, which might be challenging to obtain in some cases.

Influence of Recent Touchpoints – Heavy reliance on recent touchpoints may lead to an overemphasis on short-term marketing efforts. Longer-term brand-building activities may not be adequately represented in the attribution.

U-Shaped (Position-Based) Attribution 

Assigns more weight to the first and last touchpoints, with the middle touchpoints receiving less credit. This is suitable for companies with multi-stage sales funnels where multiple touchpoints play a significant role.


Holistic View of the Customer Journey – The U-shaped attribution model provides a balanced perspective by giving credit to both the first and last touchpoints, as well as intermediate touchpoints. Offers a nuanced understanding of how various touchpoints contribute to conversions, allowing for a comprehensive view of the customer journey.

Captures Multi-Stage Sales Funnels – Particularly suitable for businesses with multi-stage sales funnels, where multiple touchpoints play a significant role in guiding customers through the conversion process. Recognizes the value of touchpoints at different stages, providing insights into the customer’s progression through the funnel.

Reflects Real-World Customer Behavior – Aligns with the common consumer behavior of researching and considering various options before making a final decision. Acknowledges that different touchpoints contribute uniquely to the customer’s decision-making process.


Simplicity at the Cost of Precision – While more comprehensive than first-touch or last-touch models, the U-shaped model may still oversimplify the actual influence of each touchpoint. The equal weighting of touchpoints might not accurately represent the specific impact of each interaction.

May Not Capture Unique Customer Journeys – Assumes a consistent U-shaped pattern in customer journeys, which may not reflect the diversity of paths that customers can take. Some customer journeys may not fit neatly into the U-shaped model, leading to potential inaccuracies.

Challenges in Attribution Accuracy – Assigning equal credit to all touchpoints may not align with the actual contribution of each interaction.The model might not differentiate between highly influential touchpoints and those with a more peripheral impact.

Complex Sales Funnels Require Additional Consideration – For businesses with shorter and more straightforward sales cycles, the U-shaped model might introduce unnecessary complexity. The model may not be the best fit for industries where a single touchpoint predominantly influences conversions.

Inflexibility in Weighting – The model assumes a fixed weighting for all touchpoints in the U-shape, potentially overlooking variations in the influence of specific interactions. Customizing the weighting requires more advanced modeling techniques, leading to increased complexity.

W-Shaped Attribution 

Is similar to the U-shaped model but gives additional credit to a mid-funnel touchpoint. This model is useful for businesses that have a critical mid-funnel stage in their customer journey that holds a lot of influence.


Holistic Representation – The W-shaped model considers the contributions of multiple touchpoints throughout the customer journey, providing a more comprehensive and nuanced view. Recognizes the importance of both initial and intermediate touchpoints, offering a balanced perspective.

Insight into Key Touchpoints – Identifies specific touchpoints that play a significant role in customer conversion, helping businesses focus on optimizing these critical interactions. Suitable for industries with multi-stage sales funnels where various touchpoints contribute uniquely to the conversion process.

Reflects Complex Customer Journeys – Well-suited for businesses with intricate and multi-step customer journeys, capturing the influence of multiple touchpoints leading to a conversion. Aligns with the reality of modern customer behavior, acknowledging the diverse channels and interactions that impact decision-making.

Enhanced Decision-Making – Provides marketers and decision-makers with a more accurate understanding of how marketing efforts across different stages contribute to overall success. Allows for targeted optimization of specific touchpoints for maximum impact on conversion rates.


Complex Implementation – Setting up and implementing a W-shaped attribution model can be more complex compared to simpler models, requiring a thorough understanding of the customer journey. May demand more sophisticated analytics tools and expertise.

Interpretation Challenges – The W-shaped model can be intricate, making it challenging for stakeholders to interpret the significance of each touchpoint’s contribution. Requires effective communication to ensure a clear understanding of the model’s insights.

Data Quality Dependency – Relies on high-quality and reliable data to accurately represent the customer journey. Incomplete or inaccurate data may impact the model’s effectiveness. Requires ongoing efforts to maintain data quality for optimal performance.

Resource Intensity – Developing and maintaining a W-shaped model may require substantial resources, including time, skilled personnel, and advanced analytics capabilities. Regular monitoring and adjustments are essential, demanding a consistent commitment of resources.

Not Universally Applicable – While effective for certain businesses, the W-shaped model may not be the best fit for those with simpler sales funnels or where specific touchpoints play a dominant role in conversions. Careful consideration of business structure and goals is necessary before opting for this model.

Algorithmic Attribution 

Uses machine learning algorithms to assign credit based on data analysis. This model is beneficial for businesses with large datasets and complex, dynamic customer journeys.


Dynamic and Adaptive – Algorithmic models leverage machine learning to dynamically adapt to changes in customer behavior and market dynamics. They can automatically adjust weights and credits based on evolving patterns.

Objective Decision-Making – The models rely on data-driven insights, reducing the risk of subjective biases in attribution. Objectivity in assigning credits leads to a more impartial representation of touchpoint influence.

Comprehensive Analysis – Algorithmic models can handle large datasets and consider a multitude of variables simultaneously. They provide a holistic view, uncovering intricate patterns and correlations in the customer journey.

Scalability – Suited for businesses with large datasets and complex customer journeys. As data scales, algorithmic models can maintain accuracy and efficiency.


Complexity and Expertise – Developing and implementing algorithmic models requires advanced data science expertise. Not all businesses may have the internal resources or skills needed for successful implementation.

Interpretability Challenges – The inner workings of algorithmic models can be complex, making it challenging for non-technical stakeholders to interpret results. Transparency in decision-making may be limited.

Data Quality Dependency – Algorithmic models heavily depend on high-quality and clean data. Inaccurate or incomplete data can lead to skewed results and misattributions.

Continuous Monitoring and Adjustments – Regular monitoring and adjustments are necessary to ensure the model remains aligned with business goals. The need for ongoing maintenance may require a consistent investment of time and resources.

Resource Intensity – Building and maintaining algorithmic models can be resource-intensive. Businesses may need to allocate significant resources to data management, model development, and monitoring.

Custom Attribution Models

Are tailored models created based on a company’s unique goals and customer journey characteristics. This model is ideal for businesses with specific needs that standard models may not fully address.


Tailored to Business Specifics – A custom model can be precisely aligned with the unique characteristics of your business, industry, and customer behavior. It allows for a nuanced understanding of how various touchpoints contribute to conversions in your specific context.

Flexibility and Adaptability – Custom models can be adjusted and fine-tuned as your business evolves, accommodating changes in customer behavior, market dynamics, or business strategies. Provides the flexibility to incorporate additional variables or factors that may impact the customer journey over time.

Accurate Representation – Reflects the actual influence of different touchpoints in your sales funnel, leading to more accurate attribution and informed decision-making. Enables a holistic view of the customer journey, capturing the complexities that off-the-shelf models might overlook.

Consideration of Unique Metrics – Allows you to factor in specific metrics or KPIs that are crucial to your business objectives. Can include offline touchpoints or other non-traditional channels that may not be adequately represented in standard attribution models.


Complexity and Resource Intensity – Building and maintaining a custom model requires significant time, expertise, and resources, particularly in terms of data analysis and model development. Ongoing monitoring and adjustments may necessitate a dedicated analytics team.

Data Quality and Availability – This model relies heavily on high-quality and comprehensive data. If your data is incomplete or unreliable, the model’s accuracy may be compromised. Requires continuous data management efforts to ensure the model’s effectiveness.

Interpretation Challenges – Custom models can be complex, making interpretation challenging for those unfamiliar with the model’s intricacies. Communicating the rationale behind the model to stakeholders may require additional effort.

Risk of Bias and Subjectivity – There’s a risk of introducing bias or subjectivity into the model, especially if there are inherent biases in the data used for model development. Without proper checks and balances, the model might prioritize certain touchpoints over others based on subjective judgments.

Continuous Maintenance and Optimization – Regular updates and maintenance are essential to ensure the model’s ongoing relevance and accuracy. The need for ongoing optimization may demand a consistent commitment of time and resources.

Selecting the right attribution model for your business is no simple task and we are here to help along the way. Each model has its pros and cons and are better fits for some business structures than others. Selecting the right marketing attribution model will help your business make informed decisions and optimize your marketing strategies. So, it’s crucial to consider the unique characteristics of your business, industry, and customer behavior when choosing an attribution model. Factors such as the complexity of your sales funnel, the length of the buying cycle, and the significance of various touchpoints should be weighed. Additionally, understanding your specific goals, whether it be brand awareness, lead generation, or conversion, is essential in aligning the attribution model with your business objectives. A thoughtful selection ensures that your attribution model accurately reflects the intricacies of your customer journey, allowing for more effective marketing strategies and improved return on investment.

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